Saturday, May 23, 2020

Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and Ronald Reagan Servant...

Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ronald Reagan: Servant Leaders â€Å"If we love our country, we should also love our countrymen.† – Ronald Reagan â€Å"The first question which the priest and the Levite asked was: ‘If I stop to help this man, what will happen to me?† But, the Good Samaritan reversed the question: ‘If I do not stop to help this man, what will happen to him?† – Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Both men were correct in these statements and both had strong convictions to do the right thing. President Ronald Regan and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. were each known for their ability to use their words to express their feelings and to serve those who depended on them in a time when strong leadership was not only expected, but also†¦show more content†¦He met his second wife, Nancy Davis, in 1950 and married her on March 4, 1952. It was his time spent in Hollywood that Reagan’s political views moved from liberal to c onservative, which led to his election as Governor of the State of California in 1966. He later won the United States Presidential nomination in 1980 (Ronald Reagan, The White House, n.d.). Martin Luther King, Jr., was born in Atlanta, Georgia on January 15, 1929 as the middle child of Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King. He, like Reagan, was born in a rural area and grew up in a faith-filled family with a legacy of Baptist ministers. In 1944, at the age of fifteen, King entered Morehouse College in Atlanta. As a pastor’s son, Martin rejected the idea of going into ministry until he took a Bible class in his junior year, which renewed his faith and give him a vision for a life in ministry. He earned a degree in sociology in 1948 and then attended the Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania. He met Coretta Scott while working on his doctorate and married her in 1953. He became the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama in 1954 and o btained his Ph.D. in 1955 at the age of twenty-five (Martin Luther King, Jr., 2014, April 20). Growing Popularity Ronald Regan’s popularity grew while he was theShow MoreRelatedethical decision making16006 Words   |  65 PagesCHAPTER 11 Ethics and Health Pat Kurtz and Ronald L. Burr Authors Go Here Authors Go Here Authors Go Here Visit http://nursing.jbpub.com/communityhealth for Visit http://nursing.jbpub.com/communityhealth interactive exercises, review questions, WebLinks for interactive exercises, review questions, and more. Web links, and more.  © Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 1786X_CH11_248_269.pdf 248 12/30/08 10:30:24 AM REFLECTIONS It has becomeRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesTwentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century †¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence †¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History †¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective †¢ Gabrielle Hecht and Paul N. Edwards 271 8 A Century of EnvironmentalRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesSelf-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Building and Leading a Team? 308 glOBalization! Group Cohesiveness across Cultures 314 An Ethical Choice Using Global Virtual Teams as an Environmental Choice 315 Myth or Science? â€Å"Teams Work Best Under Angry Leaders† 320 Self-Assessment Library What Is My Team Efficacy? 322 Point/Counterpoint We Can Learn Much About Work Teams from Studying Sports Teams 326 Questions for Review 327 Experiential Exercise Fixed versus Variable Flight Crews 327 Ethical DilemmaRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesWRITTEN PRESENTATIONS 591 Supplement A SKILL LEARNING 592 Making Oral and Written Presentations 592 Essential Elements of Effective Presentations 593 SKILL PRACTICE 609 Exercises for Making Effective Oral and Written Presentations Speaking as a Leader 609 Quality Circles at Battle Creek Foods 610 609 Supplement B CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS 619 SKILL LEARNING 620 Planning and Conducting Interviews 620 Specific Types of Organizational Interviews 629 SKILL PRACTICE 634 Exercises for Conducting

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

History And Theory Freud And Rogers - 1125 Words

HISTORY AND THEORY – Freud and Rogers Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers are two extremely renowned individuals who have greatly contributed to the history of psychology. Their contributions are the foundation for the tools, techniques, and methodologies used by psychologist today. Although, each psychologist is from different times and developed different methods, they shared a passion for the workings of the human mind. As a result, their drive and foundation has motivated and prompted new theories and research for the future. This paper will provide a summary of two articles highlighting the processes contemporary psychologists use to develop the theories of Freud and Rogers. It also explains their views of human nature and worldviews as†¦show more content†¦The second article was entitled Depression As A Maladaptive Process: Discussion Of The Condition According To The Humanistic And Existential Approach (Varvatsoulias, 2015). This article reviewed the humanistic approach to depression and also compared the exis tential approach to depression. It explained when using the humanistic approach with individuals who are depressed, the person is on a quest for self-identity and this can cause the release of some anxieties (Varvatsoulias, 2015). According to Varvatsoulias (2015), the author explained humanistic psychology as â€Å"becoming depressive is one’s condition of worth†. Although humanistic psychology admits in conditions of worth, there are inhibitions sustained by the imposition of others upon the individual which does not make any difference in the acquisition of the condition itself†. Freud and Rogers’ Nature and Worldwide Views Freud’s view of human nature from a psychoanalytical stand point was he believed that the contents of an individual’s matters consciousness were determined by psychological, individual and biological motivations Freud, S. (2001).. His worldviews presented interpretations of who the individual was, where they came from, and what their destiny was. On the other hand, Rogers believed the psychoanalytical view humans as never free from primitive passions, childhood fixations, and only the product of powerful biological drives was not flexible enough. Rogers’s foundation ofShow MoreRelatedFreuds and Rogers Theories of Personality Psychotherapy1004 Words   |  4 PagesFreuds and Rogers Theories Personality Psychotherapy A comparison of Freud and Rogers theories of personality and psychotherapy Personality is the description of an individual through how the individual demonstrates his or her emotions and building relationship and their behavioral patterns. Two neurologists developed two theories to explain the formation of personalities. They were neurologist Sigmund Freud and psychologist Carl Rogers. Rogers and Freud worked in the field of psychotherapyRead MoreHistory and Theory Essay973 Words   |  4 PagesHistory and Theory The viewpoints if Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers have similarities and differences. Both have made significant contribution to the psychology field. The theories from Freud and Rogers are still used in modern psychology. Freud is best known for creating psychoanalysis and Rogers is renowned for developing the person-centered therapy. The subject of this paper pertains to Freud’s and Rogers’ views of their respective theories, how different their theories would beRead MoreSigmund Freud And Humanistic Theories Of Psychology1636 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The reading of personality has a thick layer of theories in psychology and is one of the most important fragments of psychological history to this day. This paper will compare and contrast the differences between the great theories of the psychodynamic theory from Sigmund Freud and the humanistic theory from Carl Rogers. These two theorists have different views of how personality is developed, with both theorists influencing the world of psychological personality to this day. DisputesRead MoreThe Theories Of Personality Theories1124 Words   |  5 Pagesimportant theories regarding personality. Some of these theories are still relevant to our world today. These theories have helped form humans and they have also changed the way we think and the way we do things. There are many different forms of personality theories that have shaped the world for us: Biological, Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Humanist, Trait, etc. Biological theories are based on genetics and they believe that genetics are responsible for personality. Behavioral theories suggest thatRead MoreComparing Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Person-Centered Psychology1735 Words   |  7 Pagesdeveloped by Sigmund Freud during the Victorian Era in Vienna, Austria. Sigmund Freud’s psychological works set the base for the profession of psychology as well as the practice of modern psychotherapy. Freud believed human behavior was motivated by â€Å"intrapsychic conflict† stemming from the three areas of the subconscious: id, ego, and superego (Murdock, 2009). Freud’s psychoanalytic approach to therapy had more of a negative view of human nature that Carl Rogers’ view. Freud thought human dysfunctionRead MoreSocial And Cultural Context Of Psychology818 Words   |  4 PagesKatja Gavrilina Define the term Psychology and discuss its history in light of social and cultural context, highlighting the significance of different perspectives in Psychology. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of mental processes and human behaviour. It had roots in philosophy and physiology, before becoming an independent scientific discipline in the late 1800 s. Descartes (1641) suggested that the mind and the body work separately, together creating the human experienceRead MoreFirst Up Is Psychoanalysis And A Good Definition To Give1354 Words   |  6 PagesFirst up is psychoanalysis and a good definition to give is that this therapy deals with past unconscious mental patterns that came from childhood. This therapy was developed by Sigmund Freud and he was known for being very interested in the unconscious. Furthermore on the treatment type, it focuses on deep-rooted that most softened stemmed from childhood. By doing this therapy it lets the clients learn how to bring by repressed memories or experiences that could be casing distress. Let us look atRead MoreI Am Looking At Where Psychology As A Discipline1361 Words   |  6 PagesHistory of Psychology In this essay I am looking at where Psychology as a discipline has come from and what affects these early ideas have had on psychology today, Psychology as a whole has stemmed from a number of different areas of study from Physics to Biology, But the first Psychological foundations are rooted in philosophy, which to this day propels psychological inquiry in areas such as language acquisition, consciousness, and even vision among many others. While the great philosophicalRead MorePerson Centered Therapy : A Humanistic Approach1667 Words   |  7 Pages Person-Centered Theory Brian L. Brooks II Lindenwood University â€Æ' Abstract Person-centered therapy was founded by Carl Rogers in the 1940s. Person-centered therapy was a humanistic approach different than Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytical theory. Person-centered therapy was a non-directive approach where counselors guided their clients towards self-actualization in hopes of attaining fulfillment. Rogers (1979) had an optimistic view of the client’s ability to achieve fulfillment under theRead MoreCompare and Contrast Psychoanalytic and Person-Centered Therapies2470 Words   |  10 Pageswith Carl Roger’s Client-centered theory and Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory. The focus of the comparisons will fall into the three main topic areas: that of optimal personality development, that of the nature of problem formation, and that of the process of learning and change. The two theorists differ in approach in that Psychoanalytic theory is basically deterministic while Person-Centered therapy is rooted in humanistic and existential philosophies. Freud concurred that behavior was determined

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Theory of Communication Free Essays

Case Study Theory of Communication Introduction to Communication Good communication and interpersonal skills are vital for success in business. The ability to communicate clearly and persuasively is often seen as the key characteristic of the effective manager or administrator. High level communication skills are also essential in specialised functions, such as marketing, human resource management, public relations and secretarial. We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of Communication or any similar topic only for you Order Now Communication is the means by which individual employees convey their wants, ideas and feelings to others,( not only managers or specialists). Process of Communication Context Medium/Channel Message Feedback Noise Communication can be defined as the process by which, ideas, information, opinions, attitude, and feeling are conveyed from one person to another. The communicator or sender is the person who initiates the conversation by sending a message. The receiver is the person who receives the messages and completes the communication by responding to it. Most communication is two way and has to have both a sender and receiver, either face to face or by other means such as telephone, letters, e-mails etc. Body language also plays a big part in communication. Sender Encoding Receiver Decoding Communication codes * Written language * Spoken language * Dress * Body language * Pictures, photographs and graphic illustrations. * Sign language, Braille. * Numbers * Computer language Communication Medium The medium is the means used to transmit the message. Media can be categorised into five headings; written, oral, visual, electronic and mass. Written media can provide a written record, can relay complex information, can be carefully thought out and mistakes can be edited. It takes time to produce and is more impersonal than speech. * Letter * Report * Memo * Press Release * Company magazine Advertising leaflet Oral media is more direct and personal, feedback is immediate. Oral media can be supported by body language. But there may be no record of what is said and if you say something you don’t mean you cannot take it back. * Conversation face to face or telephone * Interview * Meeting * Presentation * Oral briefing Visual media can have an immediate im pact, it can support verbal presentations. * Nonverbal * Diagrams * Charts * Photographs * Models Electronic media provides fast communication over long distance, can carry both verbal and visual information. * Video * Telephone * E-mail * Internet Mass media is an important source of information; it can reach a large number of people and can be used for advertising. * Television * Radio * Press * Film Channels of Communication The channel is the air that carries sound waves between speaker and listener such as: * Television channels * Radio * Postal system * Computer networks * Courier services * Telephone Barriers to Communication Effective communication is difficult and mistakes are often made. We see this in everyday life, we complain when someone doesn’t respond to our messages in the way we expect, they do not understand what we really meant to say. In business, difficulties with communication can cause disruption. Good business opportunities can be lost or disastrous management decisions made. A serious breakdown in communication can put the very future of a company at risk. Communication errors can never be completely eliminated. Nevertheless, we are likely to be more successful communicators if we are aware of the factors that cause communication to fail. Some obstacles stand in the way of communication and some of these can be avoided or overcome. Physical Barriers Among these barriers are poor hearing or eyesight, illness, tiredness, or stress. Other barriers can be, distractions such as an office that is too warm or too cold, uncomfortable seating, poor telephone connection or the noise of traffic heard from outside. If a person has a medical problem this may be sorted by a visit to a doctor. If the office is too hot or too cold the thermostat may be altered and maybe closing the window would help to block out the noise. Language Barriers To convey a message correctly it should be written clearly in a language that the receiver will understand. Mistakes in spelling can harm communication. Sometimes local jargon can disrupt good communication; it may be acceptable in a specialised trade or profession. Slang or local accents may be difficult for outsiders to understand. Nonverbal Barriers Facial expression, posture and eye movement all reveal our feelings and attitudes to the receiver. When there is conflict between a verbal and non verbal signal, it is the nonverbal signal that tends to be believed. A person may say that they are outgoing and confident but this might be contradicted by nervous body language. Poor Listening Good listening is often the most important part of communication. Listening give us a better understanding of the other persons point of view, maintains friendships and helps business collaboration. When not listening properly, we often miss an important point in a conversation. Problems with Perception Perception is how we make sense of ourselves and the world around us. We perceive the world through the senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. We also have some physiological based perceptions such as sensation of pain, heat, cold etc. We have mental perceptions such as thoughts, daydreams and fantasies. The brain registers these different stimuli and organises them into shapes and patterns that we can understand. Mistakes can arise if we think other people perceive things the same way that we do ourselves. Often they don’t and this is a common cause of communication failure. Attitudinal Barriers Stereotyping, prejudice and unwanted attribution are among the attitudinal barriers that can do the most damage to our ability to our ability to relate effectively to others. * Stereotyping: We stereotype other people when we assume they will behave in a certain way just because of their appearance, role or a particular social group. We may be surprised to find that conservatively dressed people have radical views or that the big person wearing a studded jacket and driving a Harley Davidson turns out to be as gentle as a lamb. Judging by appearance gives an incomplete and often distorted picture of what a person is really like. * Prejudice: Prejudice is an attitude of hostility based on faulty generalisations, such as stereotypes. It may be directed at individuals or groups. Prejudice can be damaging to communications if a person believes that another person is inferior, subversive, threatening, not fully part of the community and so on. If we consider another person less than ourselves, we are unlikely to value what they have to say. Prejudice is often a part of ignorance but maybe better education will improve this. * Attribution:Even when we avoid stereotyping, we still make the mistake of judging people on flimsy evidence. We should not listen to what other people say, this can sometimes be misleading. Having an accurate picture of people is vital for effective communication, but it is something that can only be built up slowly through time, insight and regular contact. The Principles of Effective Communication As a Communicator 1. Think carefully about your objectives before communicating. What do you want to achieve? Do you want to inform, persuade, advise or consult the receiver? What kind of response do you hope to get? When you have answered questions like these then you can think about the content of the message and how you define it. 2. Put yourself in the communicator’s shoes. The receiver’s perception may not be the same as yours. They may think differently or have different opinions. You may need to communicate with tact and sensitivity. 3. Choose the right medium or combination of media. Difficulties can arise if the wrong medium is used. If you try to describe a complicated process by speech alone the audience may not understand it. A combination of words and graphics may work better. 4. Organise your ideas and express them carefully. Take time to structure your ideas in a logical sequence. When choosing your words, take into consideration the receivers understanding and linguistic ability. Try to use words that the receiver will understand. Use language suitable to the communication taking place, informal language that may be used on the shop floor may not be suitable or appropriate for a business meeting. 5. Consider the context, breakdowns in communication often occur because the receiver is given information at the wrong time or place. Even important messages can be forgotten if the receiver is busy or preoccupied with something else. 6. Check for feedback, make sure your message has been received and understood. When speaking face to face look for signs of puzzlement in your listeners, be prepared to explain if necessary. Although the main responsibility for communicating a message rests with the sender, the receiver also has to listen and make sure they understand and relay the message to the right person. As a Receiver 1. Give the message your full attention. Many messages are misunderstood because the receiver is not concentrating, they are daydreaming, or there are too many distractions. 2. Interpret the message correctly. This requires effort and proper listening, if you are unsure of what is said; ask for it to be repeated. Check the meaning of unfamiliar words or references. In spoken communication listen actively and with empathy. Be alert for nuances that may subtly alter the meaning of the message. 3. Keep an open mind, you should not allow dislike of the communicator, or disagreement with their beliefs to influence your judgement. Make an objective assessment of the message no matter what your relationship with the sender. 4. Record information you are likely to forget. You should write down any information you are likely to forget such as, telephone numbers, names, dates etc. The information should be recorded properly in a secure place, not on a scrap of paper that can get lost among other papers on a busy desk. 5. Respond appropriately to the communicator by providing feedback, following up enquiries or whatever action is necessary. How to cite Theory of Communication, Essay examples

Theory of Communication Free Essays

Case Study Theory of Communication Introduction to Communication Good communication and interpersonal skills are vital for success in business. The ability to communicate clearly and persuasively is often seen as the key characteristic of the effective manager or administrator. High level communication skills are also essential in specialised functions, such as marketing, human resource management, public relations and secretarial. We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of Communication or any similar topic only for you Order Now Communication is the means by which individual employees convey their wants, ideas and feelings to others,( not only managers or specialists). Process of Communication Context Medium/Channel Message Feedback Noise Communication can be defined as the process by which, ideas, information, opinions, attitude, and feeling are conveyed from one person to another. The communicator or sender is the person who initiates the conversation by sending a message. The receiver is the person who receives the messages and completes the communication by responding to it. Most communication is two way and has to have both a sender and receiver, either face to face or by other means such as telephone, letters, e-mails etc. Body language also plays a big part in communication. Sender Encoding Receiver Decoding Communication codes * Written language * Spoken language * Dress * Body language * Pictures, photographs and graphic illustrations. * Sign language, Braille. * Numbers * Computer language Communication Medium The medium is the means used to transmit the message. Media can be categorised into five headings; written, oral, visual, electronic and mass. Written media can provide a written record, can relay complex information, can be carefully thought out and mistakes can be edited. It takes time to produce and is more impersonal than speech. * Letter * Report * Memo * Press Release * Company magazine Advertising leaflet Oral media is more direct and personal, feedback is immediate. Oral media can be supported by body language. But there may be no record of what is said and if you say something you don’t mean you cannot take it back. * Conversation face to face or telephone * Interview * Meeting * Presentation * Oral briefing Visual media can have an immediate im pact, it can support verbal presentations. * Nonverbal * Diagrams * Charts * Photographs * Models Electronic media provides fast communication over long distance, can carry both verbal and visual information. * Video * Telephone * E-mail * Internet Mass media is an important source of information; it can reach a large number of people and can be used for advertising. * Television * Radio * Press * Film Channels of Communication The channel is the air that carries sound waves between speaker and listener such as: * Television channels * Radio * Postal system * Computer networks * Courier services * Telephone Barriers to Communication Effective communication is difficult and mistakes are often made. We see this in everyday life, we complain when someone doesn’t respond to our messages in the way we expect, they do not understand what we really meant to say. In business, difficulties with communication can cause disruption. Good business opportunities can be lost or disastrous management decisions made. A serious breakdown in communication can put the very future of a company at risk. Communication errors can never be completely eliminated. Nevertheless, we are likely to be more successful communicators if we are aware of the factors that cause communication to fail. Some obstacles stand in the way of communication and some of these can be avoided or overcome. Physical Barriers Among these barriers are poor hearing or eyesight, illness, tiredness, or stress. Other barriers can be, distractions such as an office that is too warm or too cold, uncomfortable seating, poor telephone connection or the noise of traffic heard from outside. If a person has a medical problem this may be sorted by a visit to a doctor. If the office is too hot or too cold the thermostat may be altered and maybe closing the window would help to block out the noise. Language Barriers To convey a message correctly it should be written clearly in a language that the receiver will understand. Mistakes in spelling can harm communication. Sometimes local jargon can disrupt good communication; it may be acceptable in a specialised trade or profession. Slang or local accents may be difficult for outsiders to understand. Nonverbal Barriers Facial expression, posture and eye movement all reveal our feelings and attitudes to the receiver. When there is conflict between a verbal and non verbal signal, it is the nonverbal signal that tends to be believed. A person may say that they are outgoing and confident but this might be contradicted by nervous body language. Poor Listening Good listening is often the most important part of communication. Listening give us a better understanding of the other persons point of view, maintains friendships and helps business collaboration. When not listening properly, we often miss an important point in a conversation. Problems with Perception Perception is how we make sense of ourselves and the world around us. We perceive the world through the senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. We also have some physiological based perceptions such as sensation of pain, heat, cold etc. We have mental perceptions such as thoughts, daydreams and fantasies. The brain registers these different stimuli and organises them into shapes and patterns that we can understand. Mistakes can arise if we think other people perceive things the same way that we do ourselves. Often they don’t and this is a common cause of communication failure. Attitudinal Barriers Stereotyping, prejudice and unwanted attribution are among the attitudinal barriers that can do the most damage to our ability to our ability to relate effectively to others. * Stereotyping: We stereotype other people when we assume they will behave in a certain way just because of their appearance, role or a particular social group. We may be surprised to find that conservatively dressed people have radical views or that the big person wearing a studded jacket and driving a Harley Davidson turns out to be as gentle as a lamb. Judging by appearance gives an incomplete and often distorted picture of what a person is really like. * Prejudice: Prejudice is an attitude of hostility based on faulty generalisations, such as stereotypes. It may be directed at individuals or groups. Prejudice can be damaging to communications if a person believes that another person is inferior, subversive, threatening, not fully part of the community and so on. If we consider another person less than ourselves, we are unlikely to value what they have to say. Prejudice is often a part of ignorance but maybe better education will improve this. * Attribution:Even when we avoid stereotyping, we still make the mistake of judging people on flimsy evidence. We should not listen to what other people say, this can sometimes be misleading. Having an accurate picture of people is vital for effective communication, but it is something that can only be built up slowly through time, insight and regular contact. The Principles of Effective Communication As a Communicator 1. Think carefully about your objectives before communicating. What do you want to achieve? Do you want to inform, persuade, advise or consult the receiver? What kind of response do you hope to get? When you have answered questions like these then you can think about the content of the message and how you define it. 2. Put yourself in the communicator’s shoes. The receiver’s perception may not be the same as yours. They may think differently or have different opinions. You may need to communicate with tact and sensitivity. 3. Choose the right medium or combination of media. Difficulties can arise if the wrong medium is used. If you try to describe a complicated process by speech alone the audience may not understand it. A combination of words and graphics may work better. 4. Organise your ideas and express them carefully. Take time to structure your ideas in a logical sequence. When choosing your words, take into consideration the receivers understanding and linguistic ability. Try to use words that the receiver will understand. Use language suitable to the communication taking place, informal language that may be used on the shop floor may not be suitable or appropriate for a business meeting. 5. Consider the context, breakdowns in communication often occur because the receiver is given information at the wrong time or place. Even important messages can be forgotten if the receiver is busy or preoccupied with something else. 6. Check for feedback, make sure your message has been received and understood. When speaking face to face look for signs of puzzlement in your listeners, be prepared to explain if necessary. Although the main responsibility for communicating a message rests with the sender, the receiver also has to listen and make sure they understand and relay the message to the right person. As a Receiver 1. Give the message your full attention. Many messages are misunderstood because the receiver is not concentrating, they are daydreaming, or there are too many distractions. 2. Interpret the message correctly. This requires effort and proper listening, if you are unsure of what is said; ask for it to be repeated. Check the meaning of unfamiliar words or references. In spoken communication listen actively and with empathy. Be alert for nuances that may subtly alter the meaning of the message. 3. Keep an open mind, you should not allow dislike of the communicator, or disagreement with their beliefs to influence your judgement. Make an objective assessment of the message no matter what your relationship with the sender. 4. Record information you are likely to forget. You should write down any information you are likely to forget such as, telephone numbers, names, dates etc. The information should be recorded properly in a secure place, not on a scrap of paper that can get lost among other papers on a busy desk. 5. Respond appropriately to the communicator by providing feedback, following up enquiries or whatever action is necessary. How to cite Theory of Communication, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

All the Pretty Horses free essay sample

All the Pretty Horses, the setting is used to represent the main characters transformation over time from one terrain to another. The limitedness of the Texan terrain scattered with barbed wire restrictions identifies the restlessness that motivates John Grady’s brevity in the region at the beginning of the novel. Meanwhile, the Mexican wilderness that John Grady Cole’s sets out for comes to epitomize how the vast territory of fenceless space shapes his experiences as they outline his true character. The result is recognition of the parallel between open terrain and his character, each one exemplifying one another and in the end explains the enlightenment he struggles for. Right out of the gate McCarthy shines light on the theme of personal constraint contingent on the landscape. John Grady is introduced in the beginning of the novel on his ranch in Texas preparing for his grandfather’s funeral. Right away the reader is informed of his feelings of being trapped and contained. The opening sentence of the novel offers intuition into this: â€Å"The candleflame and the image of the candleflame caught in the pierglass twisted and righted when he entered the hall and again when he shut the door† (McCarthy 3). The symbolism here is that of a character whose energy and aspirations for western lifestyle are being confined to a location that is changing and slowly vanishing. He therefore remains â€Å"caught,† with limited opportunity to participate in the way of life he hopes for. This fact is ultimately disheartening, particularly for a character that is symbolized as a flame that burns with exuberance. However, at the same time he struggles, â€Å"twist[ing] and right[ing]† himself to be free to chase his ambitions. John Grady’s contempt and restlessness stem from the hardships of his family. The Cole family made their name in cattle ranching for almost a century, but is now facing a financial crisis due to an increase of industrialization. The problem is made even more difficult with the death of John Grady’s grandfather and the waning health of his father, who seems to suffer from emphysema. Grady’s mother at the same time pursues life as an actress and holds no affections for the ranch she inherits and plans to sell the unprofitable plot. Grady consults a Franklin a lawyer who explains to a befuddled John Grady, â€Å"If it was a payin proposition that’d be one thing. But it aint† (McCarthy 17). His mothers’ indifference to the welfare of the family ranch certainly disappointments him, however he too soon chooses to forsake the place he has called home for sixteen years. Even though John Grady is most content in a rural setting and on the family ranch, it opens his eyes to the mortality of the place; the death of his grandfather corresponds with the subsequent death of his agrarian way of life. The ranching lifestyle and the attractions it had were creeping toward a mechanized extinction. This threat is most clearly grasped by John Grady when he steps outside and watches a train pass: â€Å"It came boring out of the east like some ribald satellite of the coming sun howling and bellowing in the distance and the long light of the headlamp running through the tangled mesquite brakes and creating out of the night the endless fenceline down the dead straight right of way and sucking it back again wire and post mile on mile into the darkness† (McCarthy 4). The train symbolizes something tremendously modern invading his home, from the more populated and developed east. McCarthy portrays the train as an unstoppable foreign force imposing its self on an old way of life. The event cements the death of the place for John Grady. He concludes that trying to gain possession of the ranch and confronting the juggernaut of modernism is beyond his abilities and he stands no chance. John Grady and Rawlins decision to explore the untamed expanse to south of their birthplace brings a succession of experiences that transform John Grady and forms a recognizable coming of age tale. The core of this coming of age narrative moves along and mirrors the advancement of setting. When John Grady and his friend Jimmy Rawlins first depart for Mexico they ride an idyllic stretch in which they encounter no problems or violence. They partake on this romantic journey to Mexico flawlessly, which conforms exactly to their expectations. â€Å"They rode out on the round dais of the earth . . . which carried their figures and bore them up into the swarming stars so that they rode not under but among them . . . ike young thieves in a glowing orchard, loosely jacketed against the cold and ten thousand worlds for the choosing† (McCarthy 30). Their aim is to act like the men who fill their idealized imaginings, men not of leisure but of serious purpose, perseverance, and models of healthy masculinity with the world at their fingertips. Little did they know the Mexican landscape they trekked across would become unforgiving and gradually more demanding. These changes can be associated as learning experiences typically linked to a coming of age story. A storm begins to build up that literally and iguratively rains on their idyllic beginning and is a prelude for what is to come. That night John Grady and Rawlins become heavily intoxicated for what seemed like their first time, their subsequent sickness is described against a significantly in a much less ideal place. â€Å"By dark the storm had slacked and the rain had almost ceased. They pulled the wet saddles off the horses and hobbled them and walked off in separate directions†¦clutching their knees vomiting. In the gray twilight those retchings seemed to echo like the calls of some rude provisional species loosed upon that waste† (McCarthy 71). The once placid, tranquil backdrop that had once given the boys limitless options was now a â€Å"waste† occupied by a â€Å"rude provisional species. † The deterioration of the landscape from uncompromising to contemptuous is noted and the theme that the setting is independent, but that it is a key element affecting the protagonist’s experiences. After finding work for a Mexican ranch hand the boys briefly feel stable and out of a state of transiency. However, after some time passes Mexican guards whisk the boys away after they are being charged with having ties to a murder committed by their old riding buddy Jimmy Blevins. After a few days at Ecantada they are put on a truck over to Saltillo Prison. Upon their arrival they are greeted with hostility from the inmates and forced to live in vastly unfavorable conditions. â€Å"They slept in iron bunks chained to the walls on thin trocheros or mattress pads that were greasy, vile, infested. In the morning they climbed down the four flights of steel ladders into the yard and stood among the prisoners for the morning list† (McCarthy 182). Once again the setting defines the peril that has fallen upon them down an ever steeper slope. he shared sites at which the renderings of the landscape occur. Among the three of the aforementioned examples, the one that displays positive emotion takes place in a calm, tranquil arena; when John Grady and Rawlins set off on their odyssey into the vast southern aridness, their morale is high, which can be directly traced to the imagery used to describe their surroundings. With no immediate experiences with the severe re alities of a country and culture so different from their own, they boys see no reason not to continue and pursue their dreams. In contrast, the boys’ first encounter with hardship comes at a time of great inebriation. Vomiting along the road and hearing the painful heaves of their disillusionment echo in the mountains. Similarly, their plight in the Saltillo presents a rude awakening forcing them to fight to stay alive daily. In the end, John Grady makes amends with the idea that initially drove him out of Texas in the first place. What was once an opportunity for adventure has now become painful, and ironically his restlessness for home that balances his initial restlessness for escape. By the time he has commenced his final ride, from Encantada to Texas, John Grady is identified only by a grim weariness that is dutifully mirrored by the landscape: â€Å"There was just the stillness and the silence and the sound of the horses breathing and the sound of their hooves clopping in the dark† (McCarthy 286). The notion of the heroic trek has been stripped of its enchantments, its hard realities laid bare, and John Grady’s environment has traced ably and faithfully the trajectory of his disillusionment. Lying riverside with the journey still young, the boys assess a map as their horses graze. It is an oilcompany roadmap, inconveniently specific and untuned to their needs, yet neither of them is disturbed. To the south of the Rio Grande lies only an expanse of uncharted white, malleable and untested, a challenge in the pure fact of its virgin blankness. At novel’s end, they might perceive the map as irrelevant, bounded and square—hardly representative of the Earth and its infinite curve on which any fixed cardinal direction becomes its opposite. But here, cavalierly â€Å"stretched out in the shade of a stand of blackwillow,† it espouses only one truth.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

History of Chess free essay sample

The precursors of chess originated in India during the Gupta Empire,[2][3][4][5] where its early form in the 6th century was known as chatura? ga, which translates as four divisions (of the military): infantry, cavalry, elephantry, and chariotry, represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively. [6] Chess was introduced to Persia from India and became a part of the princely or courtly education of Persian nobility. 7] In Sassanid Persia around 600 the name became chatrang, which subsequently evolved to shatranj, due to Arab Muslim’s lack of ch and ng native sounds,[8] and the rules were developed further. Players started calling Shah! (Persian for King! ) when attacking the opponents king, and Shah Mat! (Persian for the king is helpless – see checkmate) when the king was attacked and could not escape from attack. These exclamations persisted in chess as it traveled to other lands. The game was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia, with the pieces largely keeping their Persian names. We will write a custom essay sample on History of Chess or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Moors of North Africa rendered Persian shatranj as sha? erej, which gave rise to the Spanish acedrex, axedrez and ajedrez; in Portuguese it became xadrez, and in Greek zatrikion, but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shah (king). Thus, the game came to be called ludus scacchorum or scacc(h)i in Latin, scacchi in Italian, escacs in Catalan, echecs in French (Old French eschecs); schaken in Dutch, Schach in German, szachy in Polish, sahs in Latvian, skak in Danish, sjakk in Norwegian, schack in Swedish, sakki in Finnish, sah in South Slavic languages, sakk in Hungarian and sah in Romanian; there are two theories about why this change happened: 1. From the exclamation check or checkmate as it was pronounced in various languages. 2. From the first chessmen known of in Western Europe (except Iberia and Greece) being ornamental chess kings brought in as curios by Muslim traders. The Mongols call the game shatar, and in Ethiopia it is called senterej, both evidently derived from shatranj. Chess spread directly from the Middle East to Russia, where chess became known as Ã'ˆÐ °Ã'…Ð ¼Ã °Ã'‚Ã'‹ (shakhmaty, treated as a plural). The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Free Essays on Feminism

FEMINIST MOVEMENT FROM ITS ORIGINS TO THE PRESENT IN USA Women traditionally had been regarded as inferior to men physically and intellectually. Both law and theology had ordered their subjection. Women could not possess property in their own names, engage in business, or control the disposal of their children. Historically they have been considered not only intellectually inferior to men but also a major source of temptation and evil. In Greek mythology, for example, it was a woman, Pandora, who opened the forbidden box and brought plagues and unhappiness to mankind. Early Roman law described women as children, forever inferior to men. Early Christian theology perpetuated these views. St. Jerome, a 4th-century Latin father of the Christian church, said: "Woman is the gate of the devil, the path of wickedness, the sting of the serpent, in a word a perilous object." But throughout centuries women began to understand that they were not inferior. From this moment they began to seek their equality in the name of Feminism. Feminism is a movement for the political, social, and educational equality of women with men; the movement has occurred mainly in Europe and the United States. It has its roots in the humanism of the 18th century and in the Industrial Revolution. We first see the Feminist Movement in French Revolution with Olympe de Gouges’ writings. In Europe there’re 2 important feminist writers that wrote classics in Feminist Literature. First one is English writer Virginia Woolf with her famous work ‘A Room of One’s Own’. The second writer is French Simone de Beauvoir with her work ‘Le Deuxieme Sexe’. Feminist issues range from access to employment, education, child care, contraception, and abortion, to equality in the workplace, changing family roles, redress for sexual harassment in the workplace, and the need for equal political representation. The history of American feminism - the self-conscious desire to achie... Free Essays on Feminism Free Essays on Feminism FEMINISM The woman’s position wasn’t always the same across the different cultures of the world. Either it was bad or good there was always something different. Some scientists believe that the first type of human society was the matriarchy. Women had more and greater rights than men. However, as time passed by the two categories of human sexes began wanting to command respect to each other. The result of this â€Å"battle† was that men managed finally to make women obey them. Undoubtedly, women made great efforts in order to overcome the disadvantages of the situation that they ended up facing, and in a way, they succeeded. Women who couldn’t stand this oppression any more decided to demand their rights by creating a movement called Feminism. Feminism can be considered as a philosophical and sociological theory, which supports that the two sexes are equal not only in a social and economical level but in an urban and political level as well. However, even though by this movement women managed many things, in none of the countries the roots of the woman’s eternal inferiority haven’t yet obliterated, we can still see sometimes that new types of super session and imbalances make their appearance. Women are no longer expected to stay at home, keep the house, take care of children, wait patiently their husband to return and bring some money. Unlike they work hard by leading two lives. In the morning we see many women going to their office, and then in the afternoon running in order to be at home early to prepare the food for the children and the husband. But neither in the workplace, nor in the house they are equal patterns with men. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, a number of factors contributed to the resurgence of Feminism. Young women who were active in this movement gained experience in the politics of protest, but found that movement leaders often viewed women’s issues as trivial and relegated them to gender- stereotype... Free Essays on Feminism FEMINIST MOVEMENT FROM ITS ORIGINS TO THE PRESENT IN USA Women traditionally had been regarded as inferior to men physically and intellectually. Both law and theology had ordered their subjection. Women could not possess property in their own names, engage in business, or control the disposal of their children. Historically they have been considered not only intellectually inferior to men but also a major source of temptation and evil. In Greek mythology, for example, it was a woman, Pandora, who opened the forbidden box and brought plagues and unhappiness to mankind. Early Roman law described women as children, forever inferior to men. Early Christian theology perpetuated these views. St. Jerome, a 4th-century Latin father of the Christian church, said: "Woman is the gate of the devil, the path of wickedness, the sting of the serpent, in a word a perilous object." But throughout centuries women began to understand that they were not inferior. From this moment they began to seek their equality in the name of Feminism. Feminism is a movement for the political, social, and educational equality of women with men; the movement has occurred mainly in Europe and the United States. It has its roots in the humanism of the 18th century and in the Industrial Revolution. We first see the Feminist Movement in French Revolution with Olympe de Gouges’ writings. In Europe there’re 2 important feminist writers that wrote classics in Feminist Literature. First one is English writer Virginia Woolf with her famous work ‘A Room of One’s Own’. The second writer is French Simone de Beauvoir with her work ‘Le Deuxieme Sexe’. Feminist issues range from access to employment, education, child care, contraception, and abortion, to equality in the workplace, changing family roles, redress for sexual harassment in the workplace, and the need for equal political representation. The history of American feminism - the self-conscious desire to achie...